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9 Reasons You Might Not Be Getting the Sleep You Need

For many sufferers of sleep disorders (known as parasomnias), and their other halves – a good night's sleep is an elusive thing.

Scientists from Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Manchester and Surrey universities have warned of the "supreme arrogance" and serious health problems that result from cutting sleep.  Sleep can help us lose weightlost sleep increases the risk of heart attacknapping is a good thing. The benefits of sleep are never ending, and the importance of getting a solid eight hours can't be overestimated, but what about when it goes wrong? What are the negative aspects of a good night's rest?

For many sufferers of sleep disorders (known as parasomnias), and their other halves – a good night's sleep is an elusive thing. 

1. Sleep paralysis

Sleep paralysis is the inability to move or speak, experienced during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, when a person is falling asleep or (less commonly) waking up. The paralysis is harmless but often frightening, and can last for a few seconds or several minutes. These episodes are often accompanied by hallucinations, either of other objects or beings, or of their own body moving (generally falling) uncontrollably. While we sleep, our body allows our muscles to relax. Sleep paralysis occurs when someone wakes up before the mechanism that causes their muscles to relax has stopped working.  Sleep paralysis often occurs when people are sleep deprived, so getting eight hours of regular rest a night can help to combat this disorder.

2. Night terrors

Only when scientists discovered REM sleep did it become possible to differentiate between  nightmares and their scarier big brother, night terrors. Night terrors occur on waking from NREM (non rapid eye movement) sleep, whereas nightmares occur during REM sleep, later in the night. Night terrors are common in children, but can continue into - or develop in – adulthood. The person will enter a state of extreme panic, and will often lash out, shout, and scream, but won't remember the incident the following day. In order to break the cycle of night terrors, it can be useful to ensure a person is fully awake before they go back to sleep after a night terror.

3. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

During an episode of OSA, a person's throat muscles will relax, causing their airway to close, and them to stop breathing. OSA has two forms: apnoea (total blockage of a person's airway for more than 10 seconds) and hypopnoea (partial blockage for more than 10 seconds). During an episode, a person will awaken and restore normal breathing, but this process may be repeated almost constantly through the night, contributing to fatigue the following day. OSA is relatively common, affecting around 4% of middle-aged men in the UK, and 2% of middle-aged women. It is often seen in overweight people, and can be resolved with weight loss.

4. Confusional arousals

Confusional arousals occur when a person is woken from a deep NREM sleep, usually in the first half of a night's sleep. They remain in a state of confusion and often act very slowly, which is why the disorder is also known as sleep drunkenness. The person will usually sit up and look around, appearing to be awake and alert, but will often have no memory of this the following day. They are usually harmless, but may be a symptom of another sleep disorder, such as sleep apnoea. Some studies have shown a strong genetic influence in those suffering from confusional arousals:  up to 60% of cases had a family history of partial arousals.

5. Sleepwalking (somnambulism)

The most common sleep disorder, sleepwalking, also occurs during NREM sleep. A person will walk and carry out complex activities while asleep. Often caused by stress or sleep deprivation, sleepwalking runs in families, and  a person is 10 times more likely to sleepwalk if a first-degree relative also suffers. While they may be able to navigate obstacles and  even send emails or draw pictures, they will look blankly at another person, and their speech is likely to be incomprehensible. Hypnotherapy can be used to treat sleepwalking, and while the best thing to do for a sleepwalker is to guide them safely back to bed, waking someone up can prevent another sleepwalking episode during the same sleep cycle.

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