What’s Really Wrong with Teacher Quality and Teacher Education?
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The last decade has included some powerful and harsh narratives about U.S. public education and its teachers: Public schools are failing, particularly in international comparisons; that failure is primarily caused by “bad” teachers and corrupt teachers’ unions; and teacher education, historically weak, does little to help correct the low quality of the teacher workforce.
Yet, my nearly three decades in education—18 years teaching high school English in rural South Carolina and ten years in teacher education—and as an education scholar have proven to me that these narratives are essentially false or at least distortions of what is true. I have made the case that the rush to embrace charter schools fails to start with what education problem we are trying to solve, and I now want to make a similar argument about teacher quality and teacher education: Teacher quality matters and teacher education needs to be reformed, but not the ways currently being argued.
As with the charter school debate, seeking solutions to teacher quality and teacher education must start with clearly defined problems and conditions or the arguments slip into mere ideological advocacy. Free market advocates chant their mantra at union advocates, prompting union advocates to chant in reply. All the while, real problems and potential solutions are lost in argument for argument’s sake.
Real Problems, Real Solutions
If we genuinely seek to raise the quality of our teachers and teacher education, let’s start with some clear problems and conditions at the root of both.
First, I have never been able to find any evidence that teacher quality is the primary source of student success or failure, although there is some evidence (although not monolithic) that teacher quality is a powerful in-school factor correlated with student achievement.
The overwhelming conditions impacting measurable student outcomes are the characteristics of students’ lives outside of school— conventional estimates showing more than 60% and some evidence suggesting as high as 86% of student achievement linked to out-of-school factors. Therefore, in order to address the teacher quality debate effectively, we must frame that discussion in the limited context of how much teacher quality matters in the metrics we use to determine school and teacher success.
Further, the status of students’ homes and communities is powerfully linked to inequitable access to educational opportunities. While the claim that “bad” teachers protected by corrupt teachers’ unions is both misleading and effective discourse, what we must address first concerning teacher quality is that children of color, children living in poverty, bi-/multi-lingual learners, and students with special needs disproportionately sit in the worst classroom conditions available in the U.S.—including higher student/teacher ratios, un-/under-certified teachers, inexperienced teachers, and test-prep curriculum and instruction.
So what are the problems with teacher quality? We must start with two:
- The greatest solvable problem with teacher quality is inequitable distribution of teacher quality among identifiable subgroups of students. This problem is being ignored by political leaders and the education establishment, and worst of all, commitments such as the ones to Teach for America are increasing that inequity, not correcting it.
- The most urgent teacher quality need is better preparing pre-service and better supporting in-service teachers in their expertise and experience with working with the most time- and financial-intensive populations of students—children of color, children living in poverty, bi-/multi-lingual learners, and students with special needs.
School policy and practices could address both of these teacher quality problems and the outcomes would be positive if we also change our singular focus on measurable student outcomes (test data) and our silver-bullet mentality about change happening immediately.