Is Austerity Behind the Spike in Heart Attacks in Greece?
A Greek flag is waved in front of the Greek Parliament while strikers march by during a protest march in Athens marking the 24-hours general strike.
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In Greece, austerity has caused more than just tear gas usage to rise. Heart attacks have spiked in the republic, in line with the economic crisis in the Eurozone, a new study shows. Studying 22,093 patients admitted to Kalamata’s General Hospital, researchers noted a distinct spike when comparing pre-crisis and crisis periods, especially amongst women. Pre-crisis (January 2004-December 2007) Kalamata recorded 841 heart attacks, compared to 1,084 between January 2008 and December 2011, an overall increase of 29%. In women, heart attacks rose by 39.2%, with acute myocardial infarctions spiking by 51%.
Dr Emannouil Makaris, presenting his findings at a research talk at the American College of Cardiology’s annual meeting, noted the particularly high increase in women was likely to be down to joblessness, and economic and domestic burdens: “Greek women have a higher unemployment rate than men, they are responsible for child care, and they also work outside the home - a formula for stress. Unemployment is a stressful event and stress is connected with heart disease, but other issues also come with financial difficulties. In these times a lot of people do not have money to buy medications or go to their primary care doctor. The cost to society is high.” Throughout the crisis, unemployment rates for women in Greece have been far higher than for men of similar ages. Amongst economically active women, the unemployment rate currently stands at 29.3%, whereas for Greek men, the figure is 24.3%.
Amongst young women, the unemployment rate is even higher, at 65% - and that's a conservative estimate, not adjusting for those putting off seeking employment by continuing education, or the diaspora, who've emigrated to seek employment elsewhere. Women's employment in Greece tends not to get the coverage men's does – Greek ship-workers, for example, may garner a five minute segment on an evening news bulletin or a few broadsheet column inches when they haven't been paid for several months, or when there have been substantial redundancies. But women's work in Greece has traditionally been dotted around various parts of the public sector, which has been subject to a wide-ranging pay and hiring freeze. As part of the public sector reforms to secure the first bailout package, Greece agreed with the Troika to hire only one person for every five people exiting the civil service – this has since been revised to one recruitment for every ten people leaving or retiring. And especially for young women recently graduating, this means that the gender divide in employment looks set to widen for the duration of the recession, and for a good period beyond. On top of the recruitment freeze, weekly working hours have risen from 37.5 to 40 with salaries frozen rather than rising to reflect this.
So women's work in Greece is increasingly devalued – even if they can get it, and the precarity of work for those still in employment adds to the stress of the extended working week impacting upon health. Further proposed administrative reform, including the scheduled dismissal of an additional 150,000 civil servants has not yet materialised but the threat still looms as the pressure from the Troika is applied. Whilst few politicians in any political party deny that the Greek civil service is bloated and inefficient, it's also one of the biggest employers in a country that is experiencing rapidly rising unemployment, and mass redundancies at a time when the pensions of many Greek citizens have been slashed will be socially catastrophic.
The human cost of austerity has been tentatively documented across the globe, supporting Dr Makaris’s findings in Kalamata. A recent study in the United States found that unemployment significantly increased heart attack rates, even after adjustments for clinical, socio-economic, and behavioural risk factors. The more precariously employed an individual was, the greater their risk of heart attack, the study found: those who had been made unemployed more than once found their incidences of heart attack increased with each consecutive job loss. The study, which took place between 1992 and 2010, was able to track those made unemployed and found that individuals were significantly more likely to experience a heart attack in the first year of unemployment than those who had never been made unemployed. Those who were repeatedly made unemployed experienced greater risk, the more times they were made unemployed.